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The Gender of Democracy by Maro Pantelidou Maloutas download in pdf, ePub, iPad

Thus, in the end, it took a constitutional amendment to open the way to parity. And today, across the Arab world and in Iran, modernizing women are principal agents of democratization and cultural change.

At heart is a question about the very concept of democracy. They argued that the constitutional amendment only invited the Parliament to adopt measures to promote the guarantee of equal access of both men and women. Democracy for democracy's sake is an exercise in futility.

Upon resolution of the case, the Consiglio di Stato took it to the Constitutional Court on grounds of unconstitutionality. Gender democracy posits that the principles of democracy should not be limited to the sphere of politics but equally apply to the workplace and to personal life. Legally, it is not always clear whether such measures are consistent with the constitutional framework of the legal system for which they are intended. Separating the two is conceptually muddled as well as politically dangerous. It would undermine, moreover, the right of excluded male candidates to stand for elections.

The problem is

If there is a leveling of opportunity and outcome, this occurs in the context of closed ballots and is due not to quotas but, rather, to the closed nature of the ballots. As stated, this article sets out to defend the constitutionality of legislation that makes parity democracy mandatory. It is true, terms are alive - and this is especially true for terms that have been developed in the course of actual political conflicts.

However arguments are still

However, arguments are still heard justifying the exclusion of sections of society - especially women, even though they constitute half of the world population. The problem is that, since independence is a myth, the state can only assume the individual to be independent if it goes to the trouble of removing all manifestations of individual dependency. Dependency is seen, not as a fundamental aspect of the person, but as an external enemy against which man, naturally free, must defend himself. We present them and discuss them in depth, looking at the French, Italian, and Spanish experiences in the first part of this article. The objective of this article, however, goes beyond the analytical description of these case studies and the discussion of arguments put forward in their contexts.

Consequently, as a precondition for the enactment of general laws, that is, equal laws, general representation requires the free and equal voting rights of those represented. In Spain, of late, the question has arisen of whether measures pursuing parity democracy are in accordance with the Constitution.