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War and Revolution in the Caucasus by Stephen F. Jones download in pdf, ePub, iPad

The peace agreement left it, like South Ossetia, legally part of Georgia but with a de facto independence guaranteed by Russia. Hafiz Hakki Pasha ordered a total retreat. Fighting around the east side of Lake Van continued throughout the summer but was inconclusive. The Russians strengthened their lines. The Russians underestimated the size of the Ottoman army, and were surprised by a large Turkish force which counterattacked.

The Russians held up the advance. The Ottoman X Corps counter-attacked the Russian forces.

Collectively the authors in this volume present a new multidimensional context for the war. In return, Russia asked the Allies to relieve pressure in the Caucasus by a naval attack.

The peace agreement leftHafiz Hakki Pasha ordered

They were strong enough to respond with counteroffensives in two weeks after the launch of the Ottoman offensive. This promise was betrayed when the revolution degenerated into bureaucratic dictatorship under Joseph Stalin. Fortunately for the Ottoman commanders, the Russians were quiet during this period. Imam Shamil followed them. As the Soviet Union began to unravel in the s, nationalism came to the fore as local bureaucratic elites sought to ensure their power in the post-Soviet order.